To mix or stir in the ingredients listed in the
Always taste food, before you add more salt,
freshly ground black peppercorns, herbs or spices. Remember, you
can add, however you can't remove too much seasoning.
Topped with ice cream.
Pasta cooked just firm to the bite. Tender but not
mushy. Never crunchy. The pasta will still offer some resistance
when being chewed. This is also called “To the tooth.”
flour/Hard wheat and Soft wheat
All-purpose flour is usually a blend of high-gluten
hard wheat and low-gluten soft wheat. Flour should not be used
directly from the bag and should be "fluffed up" by
stirring it with a knife just before measuring. The hardness of
a wheat kernel is an indication of the protein content. Hard
wheat has less starch and is preferred for bread making. Duram
wheat is the hardest wheat and is milled to form semolina which
is then used to make pasta. Soft wheat has a high starch content
and is made into cake flour. Soft wheat flour is powdery when
compared to the coarser hard wheat flour. All-purpose flour is
in-between and is therefore more versatile for general baking
needs. For baking in this cookbook I recommend using either King
all-purpose, which is made from hard wheat and is well suited to
recipes for breads and baked goods and gives chocolate chip
cookies a crisp finish with a chewy texture, or Gold MedalÒ
flour which is better suited to cookies and cakes where
all-purpose flour is recommended. While you can use these flours
interchangeably, you will notice that in some recipes less flour
is needed when using a hard wheat flour. This is more important
in bread making. Experience will tell you if there is too much
or too little flour. If you have a problem with the flour you
are using, switch to King ArthurÒ
or Gold MedalÒ unbleached
flours, which also have a better taste than bleached
A versatile product used to stabilize egg whites. I
use it in buttercream icing to prevent the butter from
separating out. Use a 1/4 teaspoon in meringue toppings for pies
or 1 teaspoon in 1 cup of whipping cream before whipping. You
will find many uses for this white powdery product.
creamy mixture of ground blanched almonds mixed with sugar.
Food Cake Pan
This is a pan with high sides and a center tube
which promotes the even distribution of heat through the
air-leavened batter. These
pans are also known as tube pans.
An Italian selection of appetizers including:
olives, pickles, peppers, vegetables and cold meats.
Bite-sized food served before a meal. Hors d'oeuvre
is a more specific word for finger foods or "extra"
food. They originated as small foods to stimulate the
A fine, dry white powder derived from a tropical
tuber. Use half as much arrowroot powder as flour in recipes for
Topped with crumbs or cheese and a sauce which is
then browned in the oven, e.g., cauliflower au gratin.
To cook a meat in its own natural juices. Can also
be made with water, beef base and seasoning.
Beverage served with milk, e.g., coffee au lait.
causes food-borne illness and is present in many foods. Handling foods properly will greatly reduce the risk of
This is simply a hot water bath around a baking
dish. The dish is set in a larger pan and water is poured around
Food which is cooked covered or uncovered in dry
heat. Preheat oven to
the desired temperature. Allow air to circulate freely around
the food. Unless specified, the oven rack should be placed in
the middle setting of the oven.
This is a wooden or flat metal shovel used to slide
yeast breads and pizzas into the oven and retrieve them when
Cream Baking Powder
An aluminum-free baking powder carried by King
Arthur Flour. It
contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium acid pyrophosphate and
cornstarch. It was developed in 1943 in Maine.
A glass or ceramic dish used for cooking in the
A metal dish used for cooking in the oven.
is the main leavening agent used for making baked goods.
Double-acting baking powder is used in all the recipes in
this book and is unique as it releases a small amount of gas
when it comes in contact with moisture. It does however require
heat for a full reaction and to cause the cake, biscuits or
muffins to rise.
An alkali produces carbon dioxide when mixed with
an acid and therefore rising will occur. Most recipes which use
baking soda will also contain an acid ingredient such as
buttermilk or molasses. Baking soda can also be used to
extinguish grease fires, clean pots, deodorize refrigerators,
scrub crystal flower vases, freshen drains and clean disposal
units. America is the main source for baking soda which is
formed from a peculiar mixed salt mined in the form of an ore
called trona from the Green River Basin in Wyoming. Trona is a
natural white mineral which is converted to sodium carbonate,
then to sodium bicarbonate or baking soda.
To produce bakery-style breads or restaurant-style
pizza, a baking stone is essential. The stone not only absorbs
moisture from the crust, it also helps distribute the heat
evenly. The stones will crack if exposed to sudden changes in
temperature. It is best to leave them in the oven until they
have cooled completely. They may be rinsed with water but never
cleaned with soap and water, as the porous material will absorb
the soapy taste.
This distinctive vinegar comes from the area around
Modena, Italy. It is made from white Trebbiano grape juice.
After being aged in wooden barrels for at least 10 years, it is
then bottled. It is the perfect acidity and may be used in salad
are the young shoots of the tropical bamboo plant in Asia. When
very young they are crisp and the perfect addition to any
stir-fry meal or a healthy addition to a sandwich.
most current meaning is to grill meat or vegetables over
charcoal or natural wood. According to Smoky Hale, the guru of
barbecue, authentic barbecue is: “meat cooked in the dry heat
of wood coals at 180-215º.” You will need a
hardwood/charcoal-burning grill for authentic barbecue.
Long-handled tongs and basting brush are essential to prevent
heat burns. Wearing an apron and having a pair of oven mitts is
highly recommended. Smoky Hale’s book: The Great American
Barbecue & Grilling Manual is your best source for
information on barbecue.
Chicken or beef base is a paste stock. It may be
ordered from www.gazins.com. Similar to bouillon granules, it is
much more flavorful and less salty. Base is superior to canned
stocks and is essential to gourmet soups and sauces.
Spoon or use a turkey baster to drizzle drippings
over cooking meats. This helps to moisten and marinade food and
enhance the color and flavor. A baster/injector is a stainless
tube with a rubber bulb on one end; it may also have a screw-on
injector needle for deep seasoning meats and poultry. When
basting with a brush, look for a high-quality brush made of
natural boar bristles which will not fall out easily.
mixture of flour, milk, eggs, sugar, and butter. This mixture
varies, however all batters must be thin enough to pour.
To introduce air into a mixture by beating a batter
rapidly with a wooden spoon, wire whisk or electric mixer until
batter is very smooth.
An equal weight of butter and all-purpose flour
which has been blended together to be used in soups or gravies.
Works as a thickening agent which will not cause lumps when
added to hot liquids like gravies or soups.
To slice a vegetable crosswise at a 45
or higher angle. This technique is used in Chinese
A creamed or puréed soup with additions of fish or
To immerse food briefly into boiling water, then
allow it to cook slightly. This method is also used to loosen
the skins of tomatoes, which makes peeling much easier.
To process ingredients in an electric blender or
food processor or to mix ingredients of different textures into
a smooth mixture. A blender is best used for puréed soups,
sauces, drinks, and salad dressings. A food processor works
better with less liquid ingredients and handles chopping,
grating, shredding and makes pastry dough. It kneads bread dough
much more quickly than by hand. Hand mixers work well when
making batters, beating egg whites and cream and may have the
option of a balloon whisk.
Standing mixers have other options which include food
grinding, dough hooks, a juicer, copper liners for bowls, pasta
plates, shredders and mixing paddles. An egg beater is useful
for blending small batches of eggs for scrambled eggs and
operates with a handle and gears to spin the beaters.
To heat a liquid until bubbles rise rapidly to the
surface. A rolling boil occurs when bubbles rise to the surface
A fish and shellfish stew made in Provence, France.
It usually contains tomatoes, wine, fish, onions, garlic,
saffron and herbs.
The granular form of bouillon cubes made from
dehydrated beef, chicken or vegetable stock. Substitute with
beef base which may be ordered from Gazin's Cajun-Creole Cuisine
A bouquet of parsley, thyme and bay leaves tied
with a string or placed in a cheesecloth bag which is removed
Meat which has been browned and cooked with a
minimum amount of liquid for a long time. The lid should cover
the pan tightly; this process will produce tender meat.
outer layer of a cereal grain removed during milling.
Your favorite product may be substituted (at your
own risk :) for a brand name item in a recipe. These items may
also be ordered through mail order or found at your local
To coat a piece of meat, fish or poultry with soft
or dry bread crumbs.
When using flours other than the recommended Gold
and King Arthur®,
you may need less flour or more water. The texture of the dough
is a good indicator. If it is very dense, you can add a teaspoon
or more water. If the dough fails to hold its shape, add a few
The best brushes have a handle and are made with
natural fibers or nylon bristles. Use, then place or keep in
dishwasher to keep sanitary in-between uses.
To cook food on a broiler pan 2-3 inches from the
radiant element in oven.
liquid which results from the simmering of meat, poultry,
vegetables, or bones with seasonings, herbs and vegetables.
Also called bouillon. To save time, purchase
"base" which is a ready-to-use paste. One teaspoon
beef base, chicken or vegetable base + 1 cup water = 1 cup
stock. Order from Gazin's Cajun-Creole Cuisine catalog.
To fry food on medium high to high heat in order to
develop a rich color on the outside and add flavor to the dish.
To use a pastry brush to apply a thin coating over
food. Look for brushes which have bristles which won't fall out.
These deep tube pans are used to bake densely
textured cakes. The
sides are curvy and produce cakes with attractive
table or salted
Cream which is beaten until it becomes a solid and
to which salt has been added.
Also see unsalted butter. Regular table butter is the
salted version. This regular table butter is used whenever
butter is listed in the ingredients. Unsalted butter is only
used when it is specifically called for. Butter may be used
straight from the refrigerator as it is easy to soften in the
butter is often desired, especially in pastries.
A cultured dairy product produced by adding special
bacteria to low-fat milk to make it thick and tangy. Originally
buttermilk was the liquid left after butter was churned, it did
once contain small flecks of butter.
There is no substitute for a homemade cake. A cake
is made from a thin batter which is usually made from flour,
eggs, butter, baking powder, sugar and other liquids and
flavorings. Flour gives the cake its structure, butter or oils
provide tenderness, sugar helps to tenderize and sweeten, eggs
give leavening as does baking powder. Other liquids and
flavorings give added dimension to our favorite celebratory
treat. Some of the best cakes often contain melted chocolate
which makes them even more moist and appealing.
a round pan, preferably nonstick in a variety of sizes.
The 8 and 9-inch pans are the most common.
Rectangular, square, springform, tube, fluted tube and Bundt
pans are common versions of the cake pan.
Each gram of fat contains 9 calories. Multiply the
grams of fat by 9 to give you the total calories from the fat.
Divide this number by the total calories and multiply this
number by 100 to = the % of total calories from fat.
A good example is a food containing 2.5 grams of
fat (as stated on the package or according to the individual
serving size). 2 multiplied by 9 and divided by the 40 calories
stated on the package must be multiplied by 100 to give you 45%
total calories from fat. This is above the recommended 30%.
These calculations will help you to make better food
Citrus peel or fruits are candied by boiling them
in sugar syrup. Flowers
are sometimes preserved by dipping in boiling syrup.
which is browned by melting slowly in a pan until it becomes
golden brown. Watch as it burns easily. A drop will form a hard
brittle ball in cold water. A candy thermometer will read
. Light caramel will be between
. Caramel should not go past 350
. While it isn't essential, a copper pan is perfect
for caramelizing and working with sugar syrups. The heat is more
easily controlled; and this is important when sugar is heated to
a high temperature as the sugar can burn easily. The perfect
1.3-quart sugar pan may be ordered from the Making a Home from
catalog. The pan is made by Mauviel
To slice cooked meats and poultry into serving-size
A deep round, oval, square, or rectangular
oven-proof cooking vessel with a lid.
in this cookbook
Each chapter containing recipes lists them in
alphabetical order. The
chapters themselves are listed according to the natural
progression of meals for a day. The last 12 chapters are
designed to answer questions, provide an extensive list of terms
and definitions and give ideas for substitutions and meal
Catalog chapter will lead you into the wide world of kitchen
supplies. The Sources for Ingredients chapter will help you find
ingredients not found at your local grocery store.
bacteria is added to milk it becomes coagulated. The curds and
liquid whey form. The whey is drained off and the curds are
pressed together. Most cheese is aged or ripened to develop
flavor and cause it to lose moisture. The longer the ripening,
the drier and sharper the cheese will be.
Thin strips of dark green lettuce or herbs such as
basil used to garnish soups. Toss strips so they become
intertwined, then place a small "heap" onto a bowl of
Chili powder is made from ground dried chiles and
spices. Fresh chiles are available seasonally, while dried
chiles may be purchased and kept for use year-round. Find a
chili powder you are happy with and use it in every recipe
calling for chili powder. The heat is not specified as all
tastes vary. Chili powder is mostly found in mild, medium and
hot varieties. Ground cayenne is different from chili powder,
although chili powder contains chiles. Look for chili powder for
recipes calling for this mix and look for ground cayenne for use
in other dishes. The two are not interchangeable.
To cool a food in the refrigerator or
leaves from unsprayed (no insecticide) lemons, oranges and
roses. Rinse and dry leaves. Melt 1/4 cup chocolate with 1
teaspoon shortening in microwave, stir well. Use an artists
paint brush to apply chocolate to underside of leaves. Place in
refrigerator, or chill, then peel off carefully. Set on waxed
paper. They look pretty next to orange slices or brush edges
with “luster dust” from Sur La Table at
food into smaller pieces on a cutting board. When the term
"chopped" is used before an ingredient, chop and then
measure, e.g., 1 cup chopped walnuts. When used after an
ingredient, measure then chop, e.g., 1 cup walnuts,
chop an onion, cut off both top and base. Stand onion on cut
end, slice in half. Turn onion so the largest cut surface is
flat on chopping board. Pull off the top outer skin. Slice the
onion in 1/4-inch slices or as thin as 1/16-inch slices for
finely chopped onions. Turn so slices run from left to right and
a recipe calls for 1 cup chopped yellow onion, use 1 medium
onion. A large yellow onion should yield 1 1/2 cups chopped
onion. Leftover chopped onion may be frozen for use in another
recipe. Keep onions in a refrigerator drawer and slice them near
an open flame/candle to prevent your eyes from watering.
A thick soup containing potatoes and fish and
sometimes tomatoes, e.g., clam chowder.
To remove solid impurities from a liquid,
traditionally used on butter and soup stocks, e.g., consommé—a
clumping of protein by heat or acid, e.g., egg white coagulates
To remove the center of an apple which contains
To cover the surface of a food with flour or
seasoned bread crumbs before cooking.
Cocoa beans – from the
tropical Theobroma Cacao tree – are the basis for chocolate.
The Crillo tree produces the best quality beans. The Forastero
tree produces a more bitter bean. Deriving chocolate from beans
of the cacao evergreen tree was originally only known to ancient
Latin Americans, but the secret soon spread to Mexico. Seed
pods, growing on the trunk and main branches are harvested and
opened with sharp blades to reveal creamy white cacao beans
which darken, then ferment under banana leaves for up to nine
days as they lay in the sun.
After a 250 to
350 degree hour-long roasting process, the beans are dehulled
leaving small pieces called nibs. Cocoa powder results from
ground roasted beans which have the cocoa butter removed. After
the cocoa butter is extracted, dry cakes of cocoa are ground and
sifted to make fine cocoa powder. The Dutch chemist Coenraad Van
Houten added alkali to neutralize the acidity of chocolate and
mellow the flavor. This is how the darker Dutch-process cocoa
was created. Black cocoa is slightly more bitter and is the
darkest cocoa powder available.
best combined with a Dutch-process cocoa powder. When
manufacturers make chocolate bars, the roasted beans are crushed
with sugar and vanilla to make chocolate liquor. The chocolate
liquor is refined to evaporate excess moisture and acidity, then
it is ground so fine that the mouth no longer perceives the
beans as individual particles. After heating and cooling,
chocolate is poured into molds, cooled and wrapped to be sold as
bittersweet, semisweet or unsweetened chocolate bars, depending
on sugar content or lack of it.
powder is naturally 97.75% caffeine-free. A 1/2 tablespoon cocoa
powder contains about .0002 ounces of caffeine. There is 10
times as much caffeine in a 6-ounce cup of coffee.
Indispensable for draining everything from pasta to
salad greens, it is also perfect for collecting vegetable peels.
Fruit which has been simmered in syrup with spices.
A fancy sweet or candy served anytime, e.g., fudge,
chocolate- covered cherries, chocolate truffles and wedding
To place baked goods on a cooling rack until cool
to the touch.
The best racks have a nonstick coating and are as
large as a breadboard. They should also have wires crossing in
both direction to avoid food falling through.
To remove the center of a fruit containing seeds,
e.g., apples can be cored with an apple corer.
powder milled from the endosperm of dried corn.
Pellets of semolina (duram wheat/also called hard
wheat) usually cooked by steaming.
To soften butter by beating at room temperature or
use an instant-read thermometer to bring refrigerated butter
down to at least 67 degrees
This is the deposit remaining on the inside of a
wine cask after the fermentation process. It is refined to
produce a white powder. Cream of tartar promotes the coagulation
of beaten egg whites and will also stop crystallization in sugar
Made from partially hydrogenated soybean and
cottonseed oil, Mono- and Diglycerides. Used to make very flaky
pastry or melted to fry chicken.
vegetables, preferably with a divine dip. The easiest dip to
make is to mix half mayonnaise and half Italian dressing. Adjust
by adding more of one or the other to form a creamy dip which is
delicious with peeled baby carrots, broccoli, radishes, endive
and other favorite vegetable. Vegetables should be sized so they
can be easily picked up and dipped into a sauce. Add grated
parmesan cheese if desired.
Crackers or cookies which have been placed in a
plastic bag and crushed with a rolling pin.
Use a mortar with pestle or use a garlic press for
When molecules in a sugar syrup join together, they
form crystals. Corn syrup in pecan pie recipe prevents this
process. The sugar particles are prevented from clumping
together to form sugar crystals.
Food which has been cut into strips, then sliced
into 1/2-inch squares.
Separating by over-heating or adding an acid to a
milk- or cream-based sauce. Happens most in dishes with eggs.
Can be prevented by cooking custards in a double boiler.
To work butter into all-purpose flour using 2
knives or a pastry cutter.
to as breadboards in some recipes. Buy a variety of sizes and at
least one which is dishwasher safe to use with raw meat. Keep
one board just for bread making and several small ones for
quickly chopping an onion. A tiny cutting board is handy for slicing lemons.
Ingredients cut into smaller pieces with a knife or
About 1/16 teaspoon or less than 1/8
A French cake comprised of three discs of almond
meringue which are layered and covered with buttercream
Immersion of meat, potatoes, onion, fritters or
bread in hot oil.
To loosen pan drippings by stirring in liquid and
To skim fat off the surface of a stock, gravy or
Sweet treats presented after a meal, e.g., cakes,
tortes, ice cream, pudding, custard, etc.
The intestinal tract in shrimp should be removed. A
small knife works just as well as a special utensil. The shrimp
should then be rinsed.
which have been cut into uniform pieces about 1/4 inch on each
side or for other foods at least smaller than 1/2-inch cubes.
Cholesterol is a fat-type substance found in all
animal tissues. Egg
yolks, organ meats, meat, poultry, fish and other seafood and
dairy products contain dietary cholesterol. Choose the lowest
fat content available and make low-fat choices such as
beef-round, sirloin, rump steak, loin, poultry without skin,
turkey or chicken breast, pork tenderloin, fat-free milk,
low-fat buttermilk, low-fat evaporated milk, low-fat cheeses,
fat-free yogurts, egg whites and fat-free egg substitutes. Limit
your daily cholesterol intake to 300 milligrams or less.
To make a liquid less strong by adding more water
or other specified liquid.
To immerse a piece of food into a liquid or dry
mixture like bread crumbs.
To make a solid, such as sugar, melt into a liquid,
such as water.
Piercing holes at intervals in a pastry dough to
prevent air bubbles forming while cooking.
drop a small portion of cream on a slice of pie, in a bowl of
soup or on a serving of strawberries.
To scatter bits of butter over a pie before the top
crust is in place. Can also mean to place an ingredient in a
random fashion over the specified item.
A set of two special saucepans, one nested inside
the other, to gently cook egg based sauces.
A mixture of flour, water and other ingredients
which is firm enough to knead or to be shaped with the
Shiny silver or gold balls made with sugar. This
may also refer to almonds covered in a sugar coating.
A term used to describe fish or poultry which has
had the internal organs removed. If the fish was dressed it
would also have the scales removed.
To sprinkle meat with flour to encourage browning
for cooking, e.g., a dressed chicken. This means the head, feet
and feathers are removed along with internal organs. A dressed
fish has the scales and entrails removed and is ready to cook.
The fat and meat particles remaining in a pan after
meat has been roasted or fried.
To randomly pour icing in a thin stream over a cake
To allow a soft cookie dough to fall from a spoon
onto a baking sheet.
To sprinkle a fine powdery layer of confectioners'
sugar over baked goods, or flour on a breadboard.
Originally used by the Pennsylvania Dutch in the
1700s. The cast-iron pot was hung from a special hook over a
fire and used for stews and slow-cooked meats. Today a nonstick
Dutch oven is available through many companies.
The oblong French pastries filled with whipped
cream or custard called pastry cream. Traditionally topped with
many flowers are grown with pesticides, it is only safe to use
flowers you grow yourself or purchase from a qualified supplier
like Earthy Delights at 1-800-367-4709. I don't recommend eating
flowers even if they are edible unless they are for a salad and
then usually just the petals are used for color. Some nontoxic
flowers for decorating include:
Buttons (Centaurea cynaus)
(Borago officinalis) - tastes a little like cucumber
Balm (Monarda didyma)
officinalus) - adds color like saffron
(Dianthus caryophyllus cultivars)
schoenoprasum), - onion flavor
Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus)
DayLily (Hemerocallis spp.)
(miniature member of the carnation family)
English Lavender Blossoms (Lavandula officinalis),
English Primroses, Fuchias, Gardenia
tuberous begonia (begonia x tuberhybrida)
- Good in sugar cookies! See Recipe
(Tropaeolum majus) - taste a little like radishes
(Viola x wittrockiana)
(Dianthus spp.) - Spicy flavor
Rose (Rosa Species and
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)
Society Garlic (Tulbaghia violcea)
Violets (Viola odorata) - Delicious when candied for
Yucca (Yucca elephantipes),
Zucchini (curcurbita pepo cultivars)
Plum, Orange, Lemon
and Mimosa blossoms.
I have also eaten batter-dipped
squash blossoms (Cucubita spp.) and lived to tell about it. Sugar flowers or
gumpaste flowers are perfect for most cakes and may be ordered
from Sweet Celebrations Inc.
The Edible Flower Garden
To beat eggs and brush over breads or pastry before
When you see eggs are to be separated, usually the
whites go in a deep medium bowl to be beaten to soft or stiff
peaks, the yolks go into a large or small bowl to be added to
the batter or beaten with the sugar. In the event where only
whites or yolks are called for, the leftover white or yolk may
be frozen in an ice cube tray then placed in a bag for use later
in another recipe. Simply thaw and use. Check the freshness of
eggs by placing the whole egg in a glass of cold water. Fresh
eggs will stay at the base of glass, older eggs will float or
turn sideways and stand upright.
These are agents that stabilize a fat and liquid
mixture to prevent separation. Eggs act as the
stabilizer/emulsifier in mayonnaise and keep oil from separating
from vinegar or lemon juice.
A mixture of fat and water or another liquid in
which the fat has been suspended and is no longer separated from
Planning ahead will make all your entertaining so
much easier. The more you can cook and prepare the day before,
the quicker and more enjoyable your party will be. A buffet is
the easiest, as everyone can serve themselves and dishes may be
made the day before. For a sit-down dinner, the entire table,
flower arrangements and decorations may be finished the night
before and covered with a large paper tablecloth. Remember to
make more ice than you think you will need or purchase bags of
ice on the day of the party. Lasagna is perfect in the winter
and can be easily served with a tossed salad and garlic bread.
In the summer, trays of items may be refrigerated right up until
Don't forget to have plenty of drinks in the summer
and set up your coffee maker before the party so all you have to
do is hit the on switch just as dinner is being served. Waiting
for coffee to brew when everyone is ready for dessert is always
annoying, unless you want to wait for dessert. For a finishing
touch, think of something unique to place at each place
A small arrangement of flowers, a specially folded
napkin, a small votive candle or little chocolate truffles set
in pretty candy cups make the table more festive.
Take pictures of your ideas and keep them in your
photo album to remember them the next year or party. Cooking
magazines are great inspiration for seasonal parties. Cooking
shows also have great decorating ideas.
The main course in America, or the course between
fish and meat in Europe.
Strong coffee made by forcing boiling water through
ground coffee in an espresso maker. One fluid ounce of straight
coffee liquid drawn from 7 grams of ground coffee. A double shot
would be two ounces. Use beans which are recommended or use
espresso beans which are specially blended and roasted to an
almost black color.
An extract which has the essential properties of a
substance in a concentrated form, usually suspended in alcohol,
strong flavor extracted from the leaves, stems or flowers of
Milk which has 60 percent of the water removed.
This is not a substitute for sweetened condensed milk which is
much thicker with more water removed and sugar added, e.g.,
An aromatic concentrated natural oil suspended in
alcohol, e.g., vanilla.
Dietary fat is divided into three different types
of fat, namely saturated, polyunsaturated and monounsaturated.
The foods we eat contain percentages of these fats. A high-fat
diet will contribute to obesity and heart disease. In order to
stay healthy, limit your daily fat intake to 30% or less of the
total calories. Up to one-third can be saturated fat and the
remaining two-thirds should be from polyunsaturated and
Fenugreek seeds come from the pods of the fenugreek
plant. They are legumes which are highly aromatic when dried and
roasted. This is an essential component of curry powder.
A piece of boneless meat or fish.
Chocolate varies in taste and texture, not to
mention intensity. Valrhona chocolates (Manjari, item "Valmanj"
from New York Cake & Baking Distributor) are one of the most
aggressive chocolates with an almost winey flavor; perfect for
use when flavoring ice cream. The entire line of Peter's
Chocolates is superior in taste and texture. Peter's Dark Sweet
Chocolate (Item 11231) from Sweet Celebrations Inc. is excellent
for coatings or making chocolate spoons. Peter's Milk Chocolate
can be used for anything calling for milk chocolate. Nestlé®
White Cocoa Butter Coating (Item 74470) from Sweet Celebrations
Inc. is excellent for decorating or use as a coating. Callebaut
semisweet chocolate bars (Item 77143) from Sweet Celebrations
Inc. is a mellow chocolate perfect for coatings. Ghiradelli milk
chocolate is also an excellent smooth chocolate.
Firm ball stage for candy
Drop 1/2 teaspoon boiling candy into cold water.
Candy should form a firm ball which will flatten out after being
removed from the water. A candy thermometer will read between
degrees. Caramels and divinity are examples of this
A term usually used to describe the process of
separating fish with a fork. Fish is done when flakes easily
with a fork.
An imitation of an extract, e.g., Imitation
Fleur de Sel
which is described as the flower of the ocean. Large light salt
crystals float in large sheets on the surface of the water. It
is then gently lifted off the water with a hand tool and placed
in baskets to dry in the sun. July and August are the main
months for harvesting when the wind comes from the east.
Purchase Fleur de Sel from www.zingermans.com.
To press a pastry edge with your left thumb and
right thumb and index finger to form a scalloped edge. If your
nails are too long, use the bent index finger of right hand and
the bent index and middle fingers of left hand.
Different flours will affect the outcome of a
recipe. I recommend using Gold Medal® brand all-purpose flour if it is
available in your area. You may also wish to order King Arthur®
all-purpose flour. Both flours should not be used straight from
the bag as flour compresses when packed and shipped. It is
advisable to pour the flour into a container with a sealed lid.
should also be "fluffed up" with a knife just before
measuring. Flour may then simply be scooped up and the knife may
be used to level off the flour. Try weighing flour scooped
directly from the bag, and then after using the method above.
You will be surprised by the weight difference.
To mix a lighter mixture such as beaten egg whites
with a heavier one such as cake batter, without releasing air
bubbles. This can be easily done with a large spatula. Use the
spatula to cut vertically through the mixture and then slide the
spatula across the base of the bowl and up the side while
holding bowl at an angle. An extra-large bowl is perfect for
made with sugar, water and corn syrup or glucose. The mixture is
heated to 238
, cooled and then kneaded, e.g., fondant used in
chocolate-covered cherries on page 650.
This is an outline of what constitutes a healthy
diet. A copy of the pyramid and suggestions can be ordered from
the Sources Guide.
A food label stating a product is fat free,
cholesterol free, sugar free or sodium free must contain no
amount or only an insignificant amount of the stated
Unconfined livestock, e.g., chickens which were not
raised in a coop and lived a better life.
To allow an ingredient or food to reach 0
in a freezer. The freezer is also useful for
quickly cooling ingredients or freezing foods before packing in
a bag or wrapping, this keeps foods separated. Label and date
all foods. Leftovers are best frozen immediately, you may not
decide to eat them the next day and later in the week you can
heat it easily in the microwave. Leftover onions, herbs and
chopped bell peppers can be frozen in little plastic containers
for use on pizza or use in other recipes.
Foods which have not been processed, frozen or
cooked. Also known as uncooked foods in their natural
cover a cake or cookie with icing.
A mixture of candied diced lemon
peel, orange peel, citron, red cherries and pineapple.
To cook food in oil or butter over medium-high
A semi-soft creamy candy often made with
A mixture of chocolate and warm heavy cream. Melt
12 ounces of chocolate chips or shaved chocolate in 1 1/2 cup
heated heavy cream. Refrigerate half the mixture and whisk
occasionally to form an firm icing. I use a chocolate cake
recipe and bake the batter in a bundt pan for 45 minutes at 350
completely cooled, you first spread on the firm icing, then you
pour the room temperature mixture over the cake. You will have
some firm icing left for decorating with a piping tool. I melt a
square of white chocolate and drizzle it across the cake. Then a
toothpick is pulled through the drizzles to form a
sprinkle the cake with nonpareils and then decorate the top with
little icing stars. You can also pipe around the base of the
cake. One silver dragée
looks wonderful on each star. The cake could also be cut and
layered with a filling before icing with ganache.
Use a garlic press and forget about peeling each
process of decorating and adding visual appeal to dishes of
prepared food with edible foods. Lemon twists, fresh herbs,
tomato roses, fruit and vegetables cut into shapes.
To allow a liquid to congeal so that it is firm
enough to retain the shape of the bowl or container it is
A tasteless thickening agent derived from collagen
in the connective tissue and bones of animals.
A light sponge cake developed in Genoa, Italy and
adapted by the French.
In India, the heat of the climate causes butter
made from water buffalo milk to go rancid. To solve this
problem, butter is slowly melted to reveal a golden liquid below
the milk solids. It is then simmered until moisture evaporates
from the milk solids and they turn a light brown. Butter can be
kept longer and gives a nutty flavor to dishes. Spices may also
The edible liver, heart, gizzard and neck of
poultry usually found wrapped inside the chicken or turkey
gifts provide immediate gratification and show you took the time
not only to remember the recipient but made a special treat you
knew they would love. Present your treasures in small cellophane
bags, decorative boxes, decorated paper bags, or cookie tins. A
food basket is always appreciated. A tower of decorated boxes
containing different items will not just be a feast for the
eyes. The Sweet Celebrations Inc. catalog has a huge variety of
bags, boxes, etc.
French for iced, candied or crystallized. Food with
a glossy sheen coating. Cherries are often found this way for
use in baking. Candied mixed fruit peels are also called a glacé
To brush or coat with a savory or sweet glossy
sauce or icing.
This is a combination of gliadin and glutenin found
in flour. When flour is moistened and stirred it becomes a tough
and elastic protein. It is responsible for giving foods
structure, volume and texture. Strands of gluten form as dough
is kneaded; and trap air and gas released by leavening
A connoisseur of fine food and wine.
To change solid food into fine shreds by moving
food carefully and deliberately over a grater. Hard cheeses are
The best grater is an ergonomically built one from
the Practica catalog. It has a smooth round top and pyramid-like
sides. A grater should have large, medium and small holes and
possibly a slot for slicing cheese.
coat a pan with butter or fat. Butter wrappers may be saved for
this purpose. A small square of waxed paper can be dipped into
butter and then used to grease a pan.
To place food on a rack over direct heat. This may
be an indoor grill on a stove top or an outdoor gas/charcoal
grill. Clean your grill with a metal-bristle brush. Look for one
with a scraper attachment. When grilling fish or vegetables,
first spray grill with nonstick spray.
The process of pulverizing ingredients such as
herbs and spices into even smaller particles for more even
distribution in foods.
A fruit native to Brazil, also grown in South
Africa, California and Hawaii. Fresh guavas have a green skin
with an beautiful peachy-pink flesh—with edible seeds
inside—which softens when boiled in sugar syrup, it can then
be served with a custard sauce made with custard powder. Also
used in fruit salads and fruit punch in Africa.
Gumbo is a derivative of the African word for okra.
Gumbo is a soup/stew which starts with the making a French/Cajun
roux. Ground leaves of the sassafras tree called filé powder
were originally used by the Choctaw Indians and help to thicken
and give a thyme/savory flavor to Cajun/Creole soups. This
Creole specialty may also include okra which was brought to
America by Ethiopians. Okra is a favorite addition in the South
where it is used for flavor and produces a thickening substance
when cooked in a liquid.
Hard Ball stage for candy
Drop a 1/2 teaspoon boiling candy mixture into cold
water. Use your fingers to form a hard ball. The ball will roll
around if removed from the water. Taffy is a good example of the
hard ball stage and will reach a temperature of 250
to 265 degrees
Hard Crack stage for candy
Drop a 1/2 teaspoon boiling candy mixture into cold
water. The candy will form brittle threads in the water and
remain brittle once removed from water. A candy thermometer will
read from 300
to 310 degrees.
To make a food or liquid hot by placing it in oven
or on the stove top in an appropriate pan. Foods may also be
heated on a grill outdoors or in a microwave oven.
come from the aromatic leaves of many plants. The best way to
find fresh dried herbs is through mail order. It is impossible
to tell how long a bottled dried herb has been sitting on a
store shelf. Penzeys Spices has a wonderful catalog and the
packaging is practical. When purchasing an ounce of dried herbs,
remember this will almost fill two 1/2-cup spice bottles. The
remaining herbs may be saved in the re-sealable packages.
decorate cakes for the holidays, roll out marshmallows with a
little cornstarch. Then moisten the marshmallows with a little
water and press them into colored sugar. Cut out desired shapes,
e.g. red sugar hearts for valentines day. Use mini cookie
cutters for the best results. Let the cutouts dry 1 hour before
Appetizers and portions of savory foods served with
toothpicks or eaten as finger food.
Removing the stem and leaves from berries, e.g.,
The chemical process by which hydrogen atoms are
pumped into unsaturated oils/fats to make them firmer at room
temperature. Shortening and margarine are more saturated than
the oils from which they are made.
Sweet coating for cakes, breads or cookies.
The basic elements of each recipe. The best
ingredients will give superior results. My top 20 favorite basic
ingredients are: Fleur de Sel, Tellicherry peppercorns,
Bourbon-Madagascar vanilla, Gold Medal®
or King Arthur®
flours, Aluminum-free baking powder, balsamic vinegar, beef and
chicken base, fat-free milk, Peter's, Valrhona and Callebaut
Chocolates, canola and olive oil, Fiori di Sicilia flavoring,
Dutch cocoa, and meringue powder, orange blossom honey, Johnny's
seasoning salt and Lawry's® garlic salt. Organic meats and
eggs will also enhance your meals.
term is used when making rolls. Simply take the cut piece of
dough, cut side up. Take both thumbs and pull over until a
rounded surface develops. Pinch dough underneath and set on
baking sheet. This is easier than trying to roll the perfect
To turn a food upside down. Inverting gelatin means
turning the bowl or mold upside down so that the set gelatin can
slide onto a serving plate.
A fruit and sugar mixture cooked with pectin.
A clear mixture of fruit juice and sugar which
jells or sets to a soft yet firm texture.
A shallow 18 x 13 x 1-inch pan with a rim. Used to
make jellyroll cakes or to toast items you wouldn't trust on
regular baking sheets, e.g., nuts and coconut.
The extracted natural liquid from fruits and
To cut food into thin match-shaped strips about 2
inches long and 1/4 inch thick. The common term used to describe
the process of cutting carrots, beets and other vegetables.
France the term "Batterie De Cuisine," meaning
artillery of the kitchen, may be a more appropriate term than
essentials for some cooks when you see their kitchen after they
have had a creative cooking spree. There are many tools which
are essential to basic cooking. Pots, pans, measuring spoons,
measuring cups, bowls, wooden spoons and forks are about the
most basic tools. For serious cooks, this list can go and on, ad
Perfect to have on hand, especially if mounted in a
butcher block. Use for trimming fat off poultry, removing fat
from bacon, snipping herbs, cutting flower stems, opening bags
and cutting kitchen twine. A kitchen shears or poultry shears is
also useful for cutting up whole chickens.
Dough shaped into a ball which is pushed with the
"heels" of your right hand while holding the dough
with the fingers of left hand or vice versa. Fold dough, turn
and repeat. If you are short on time and have purchased a food
processor, use the kneading blade and knead for one minute.
Bread machines are the best shortcut―simply run on a bread
dough cycle and take care of the first rise at the same time.
Don't worry about over kneading dough. According to most
experts―this is almost impossible to do at home. Most
recipes in this book use short kneading times.
Prepared in accordance with strict Jewish dietary
laws. Milk and meat may not be cooked in the same pans or served
on the same dishes. This law came from the Hebrew prohibition of
boiling an animal in its mother's milk. The life-giving milk
which would have sustained it could not be used to cook the
animal. Salting a chicken before cooking it is also a Kosher
custom. The blood of an animal was also never to be eaten with
the meat. Today a rabbi will supervise the preparation of
"Kosher" foods in stores.
best is called "leaf lard," and is made from rendered
(melted and clarified) pork fat found around the pork kidneys.
Used to make very flaky pastries and for frying "sopaipillas.”
Meat, poultry and seafood which are considered lean
should contain less than 10 grams total fat, and containing less
than 4 grams saturated fat.
This meat should also contains less than 95% cholesterol
per 3.5 ounce serving. Extra lean meats contains less than 5
grams total fat and less than 2 grams saturated fat.
and baking powder help to "leaven" or raise the bread.
Leavening may have been discovered when ale instead
of water was used to make bread dough. The spores of yeast then
grew and a lighter bread resulted. The sourdough starter evolved
from using a piece of dough from the previous day's batch. It
was added to the new bread dough. Starters can be ordered from
the Baker's Catalogue®
along with yeast and baking powder.
recipes will call for a certain size container or package where
possible. When using green bell peppers and only a half is
called for, you may want to chop the leftover half and place in
a small container in the freezer. This is also a good idea for
leftover onions. Soon you will have enough and won't have to
chop a whole onion. An egg white or egg yolk which is left out
of a recipe may also be frozen in ice cube trays (wash in
dishwasher before using again for ice cubes).
A product to help prevent white specks from forming
Light or Lite
A product claiming it is light is a nutritionally
altered product containing one-third less calories or half the
fat of the original food. The food's sodium content may also be
cut by 50% or more.
You may choose to use
regular lime juice, however there is a special blend which comes
from Key limes grown in the mountains of Mexico which is simply
the best for use in Key Lime Pie. This may be ordered through www.KingArthurFlour.com and is
called FloribbeanÒ Key Lime Juice.
To line a baking dish with baking parchment you
should set the baking pan on the parchment and draw a line
around the base. Cut out the shape and place inside the greased
pan. It may also refer to lining a pan with aluminum foil when
preparing a pan for roasting meats.
essential pan for bread making. Standard size is 8 1/2 x 4 1/2 x
A product stating that it contains low fat, low
cholesterol, low sodium and low calories must contain small
amounts of the same items.
To swirl two different colors of batter, usually
chocolate and vanilla with a knife. The batters will blend
slightly but should look separate.
To soak food in a seasoned liquid to tenderize and
To prevent wasting plastic bags, use a 13 x 9 x 2-inch glass
baking dish to marinate meats.
you wish to substitute margarine for butter, do so at your own
risk. Margarines vary in fat content and this makes it tricky.
Look for one containing 60% - 80% vegetable oil or fats and
purchase the ones in stick form for baking.
Ground blanched almonds, sugar and egg whites. Make
your own marzipan by mixing a quarter of a pound almond paste
with one cup sugar and two tablespoons light corn syrup. Mix
until smooth. Used to decorate cakes and to make candies or can
be shaped into miniature fruits and vegetables, painted with
food coloring to resemble the real thing.
A common term used to describe the process of
crushing potatoes with a potato masher.
Measuring brown sugar
Brown sugar should be lightly packed into the
measuring cup, unlike many recipes which call for firmly packed
can be easily measured by buying the butter in pre-measured
sticks. 1 stick of butter is equal to 1/2 cup. Cut the butter
into the desired measure at the markings on the wrapper. Some
wrappers may be unclear or not centered right and may need to be
removed and re-wrapped around the butter. In this case, cut the
butter in half then proceed with measuring. There are 8
tablespoons of butter in 1 cube. Half a cube would be 4
tablespoons or 1/4 cup, and one quarter would be 2 tablespoons,
etc. Soon you will be able to measure 1 tablespoon butter by
eyeing out the size.
Measuring dry ingredients
Stainless steel or plastic measuring cups and
measuring spoons are a must for dry ingredients. When using
measuring spoons, remember to never measure the ingredients over
the mixing bowl or pan in case the spoon overflows. Measure dry
ingredients and then use the straight side of a dinner knife or
kitchen knife to level off the surface.
All recipes in this cookbook use the "dip and
sweep" method as it is quicker than spooning flour into the
cup. When measuring flour into a measuring cup the "dip and
sweep" method is only accurate as long as you make sure
flour is "fluffed up." This is easily done by using a
knife to stir flour around until it is aerated, dip cup, then
simply sweep off the top with a knife. When purchasing flour, I
always dump the bag into a more usable plastic container. Flour
tends to get packed down in shipping and this helps to fluff up
Measuring liquid ingredients
Use glass liquid measuring cups or fill stainless
or plastic measuring cups to the brim. When liquids are under
two cups it is often easier to use stainless or plastic
measuring cups instead of trying to read the measurement in a
larger glass container.
When measuring spices, use special spice spoons
which are thinner and can easily fit into the spice bottle. Fill
the spoon and shake in the bottle to even out the surface. You
can be a little more liberal with herbs.
tool resembling a tiny ice cream scoop. Perfect for scooping
perfect balls of cantaloupe or watermelon. Look for a tool with
two different size scoops.
To turn solid food into a semi-liquid by applying
low heat. This is a term used often in connection with butter
Egg whites beaten until stiff and then sweetened
with sugar. Baked to form a crunchy sweet topping for pies or
used to make crisp meringues which can served with cream.
A mixture of delicate young salad greens. The
mixture is colorful and can be added to your own salad mixture
to add variety and flavor.
I don't recommend a microwave oven for cooking
meats but it is helpful when defrosting them. Foods may be kept
in the freezer and brought to room temperate when needed, e.g.,
butter. A temperature probe which can be inserted into foods or
liquids to bring them to exact temperatures is very helpful.
This feature is excellent for bringing water to a boil or to an
exact temperature for bread making or to bring frozen butter to
room temperature for making buttercream icings.
Middle celery/heart celery
part of celery literally in the middle of the bunch. This is the
tender celery with some light green leaves which are also a
delicious addition to soups. A stalk may also be called a rib.
Technically the celery ribs are attached to the stalk. The whole
celery plant is then called a bunch of celery.
Fat-free milk is used in most recipes. When
substituting whole milk or skim milk be aware of the consistency
of the recipe. It is advisable to add more whole milk than
fat-free milk. Fat-free milk is also used in many recipes in
place of water. Use a substitution at your own risk as fat-free
milk does not have the fat contained in whole milk. This changes
the recipe slightly.
To chop foods as finely as possible. This is often
used to describe chopped parsley, or garlic when a crushed paste
is not desired.
Mise en place
Means to prepare ingredients up to the point of
cooking. Read through each recipe before making it the first
time. I have tried to list all the ingredients and the way they
should be prepared to save time in the directions. You can
prepare all the ingredients and have them waiting or prepare
them as you need them. The latter will save you a lot of dishes.
Some recipes demand that you prepare the ingredients first.
These are recipes in which timing is essential, such as
stir-fry. This philosophy also requires you to take stock of
your kitchen each week to make sure you have enough essential
ingredients. The shopping list in this cookbook will help you
prepare for each recipe. If you are unsure about an ingredient
check, before you start. Running to the store in the middle of
making candy or bread can be disastrous.
with a spoon or fork so that the ingredients are evenly
A set of glass and stainless steel bowls are the
most useful. Purchase deep and extra large bowls for many uses.
Coffee and chocolate. Either strong-brewed coffee
or instant coffee granules are mixed into a chocolate mixture,
e.g., chocolate cake batter.
To add enough liquid to a dry ingredient to make it
Olive and canola oils are excellent and have been
shown to decrease cholesterol levels in the blood. These fats
can be solid or liquid. Olive oil tends to become more solid
Mortar and pestle
The perfect set to grind fresh or dried herbs. The
pestle resembles a mini-baseball bat which is pressed into the
bowl which may have a textured base to make grinding easier.
Marble is my preference. These come in a variety of sizes, a
medium size is handy to have sitting on the counter for spices.
slowly heated and spiced apple cider or red wine.
multicolored sugar pellets used to decorate cakes.
This term is used to describe pans or bakeware
which have been coated with a interior surface which allows food
to release easily and speeds up cleaning. Not all surfaces are
durable. I recommend Calphalon®
for great food release. Scanpan®
is better for moist cooking, while Calphalon®
excels in the area of frying and baking. I choose to have both
of these fine lines of products in my kitchen for various tasks.
You may wish to order all nonstick items for your baking needs.
Nonstick pots and pans are not essential, but make life easier.
The heavy-based Scanpan®
line is perfect for stew, soups and sauces. Calphalon®
nonstick pans are best when frying potatoes, steaks, pancakes or
other foods where you wish to cook in very little oil.
After harvesting, olives are cold pressed to
produce olive oil. Extra virgin olive oil is the best you can
buy. The best oils come from Greece, Italy and France.
catalog has a unique oil similar to those sold in Cassis, France
on the Mediterranean Sea. Look for "Maussane-les-alpilles"
which runs around $30 a bottle. Use in salad dressings, over
meats or anytime when a distinctive herbal character is desired.
Extra virgin olive oil is best when used during the first year
after opening and can be kept in the refrigerator, but needs to
warm to room temperature before using.
term is used for those who prepare food during the day and use
the night to let foods marinate, etc. If you are on a different
time schedule, use 12 hours as a guide where logical.
To cook uncovered over high heat in an ungreased
The term given to fish which has the scales, gills
and viscera removed. The fins and tail should be trimmed with a
To scale your own fish, place fish on newspaper next to the
sink. Hold the fish by the tail, using a little salt to keep a
firm grip. Scrape the scales with the back of a knife. Rinse and
repeat on the other side. To skin: place skin side down on clean
paper and use a sharp knife to separate flesh from skin while
holding tail tightly.
To cook uncovered over high heat in a small amount
To partially cook a vegetable or food in boiling
water. This is often done to fresh vegetables just before
freezing to help maintain a bright color. If freezing, plunge
the blanched vegetables in an ice-water bathe to stop the
cooking process; drain and freeze.
A paper which is grease and heat resistant. It is
used to line baking pans and wrap foods. It can also be made
into a disposable pastry bag.
remove the outermost skin of a fruit or vegetable, also know as
peeling a fruit or vegetable.
When you plan a party, begin with a list. You will
get ideas weeks or days before, so write them down. Send out
invitations early so you have time to plan efficiently. It is
better to have too much food than too little, everyone will
enjoy taking an extra plate home to snack on later. Stock up on
ice or delegate the job of bringing a large bag. An ice chest is
perfect for storing beverages for a picnic or barbecue. Try to
provide vegetarian and meat choices. Flowers are a must at
parties and help to brighten a buffet table. Serve the food at
various levels for eye appeal.
Sweet treats served after dinner, for breakfast or
at tea time, e.g., pies, tarts, cream puffs and Danish
A cone-shaped bag with a pointed end. May be fitted
with a pastry tip which is held by a coupler. Tips are sold
individually or in sets. See "piping" for directions
on using pastry bags.
The most useful brush resembles a paint brush and
has bristles which are firmly attached so they do not fall out
while using. Natural bristles work well for brushing melted
butter over pastry. Pastry brushes should be washed well after
each use. Dipping them in boiling water after washing is also a
good idea after use with meats and eggs and it helps to remove
natural gelatin-like substance prepared from apples or citrus
fruits, used in jelly making.
To remove the skin from fruits or vegetables. Can
also refer to citrus peel or the rind of the citrus fruit.
Citrus peel is the same as zest, however zest contains none of
the white pith.
Two pepper mills are recommended, one for
Tellicherry peppercorns and one for regular store-bought
peppercorns. The Tellicherry peppercorns are larger in size and
may need a special grinder. Place mills in their own small bowl
to catch the leftover milled pepper, useful when a
"pinch" of pepper is needed.
Usually a standard 9-inch plate. Glass is highly
recommended in this cookbook as it will give an even crisp
crust. The deep-dish pie plate is also highly recommended to
prevent spills. If you have trouble getting the pie crust into
the pie plate, either roll the pastry halfway around your
rolling pin, or use a plastic pastry sheet and turn it upside
down over pie plate.
The amount of a dry ingredient you can hold between
tips of the thumb and index finger. Usually 1/16 teaspoon. To
obtain this amount, simply add spice/herb onto food in one or
two shakes from a regular spice bottle with a perforated inner
The best piping bags have a plastic lining and have
an apparatus which allows you to change the nozzles or tips
without changing bags. To pipe: hold the top of the bag over
your hand to form a collar or stand the bag in a tall glass with
the nozzle pointing down. Spoon the mixture, icing, filling,
etc., into the bag until it is no more than 2/3 full. Twist the
top of the bag down and remove any air bubbles. Hold the twisted
end in one hand and use the other hand to guide the nozzle.
Squeeze the top of the bag with the first hand. The pressure
should be even and constant. When you have completed the piping,
stop applying pressure and press down slightly and then quickly
lift the nozzle. Hold vertically for meringues and at an angle
for éclairs. Plastic squeeze bottles and strong plastic bags
also work well as piping bags.
The stone of apricots, peaches, avocados and
cherries. This word is often used to describe the removal of the
stone, e.g., to pit the cherries. Could also mean a “barbecue
To cook gently in a hot liquid just below boiling
These fats will actually help to lower blood
cholesterol levels. Polyunsaturated fats are generally found at
room temperature and include fats such as sunflower oil and corn
A utensil with a grid pattern which is pressed into
potatoes and other vegetables after they are cooked. They can
then be fluffed with a hand beater or wooden spoon.
a meat mallet to pound chicken or beef to tenderize tough meats
or to create a uniform size.
The process of turning on oven so that it will be
at the recommended temperature to cook a food by the time the
food has been prepared. This is especially important when baking
cakes or roasting meats.
To preserve food in canning bottles or to prepare
food in a food processor.
To allow a yeast dough to rise. Also refers to the
process of dissolving yeast in warm water (110
) with sugar to see if it is alive and bubbling. A
proofing box is a warm place for dough to rise. This may be
obtained in an oven which has been turned on to 200
and turned off when heat is felt on hand from open
To use your fist to literally punch a risen
To convert food to a smooth, thick mixture by
pressing it through a fine sieve or food mill. The food may also
be blended in an electric blender or food processor until
When you are in a hurry it isn't always fun to have
to make your own pastry dough or bread dough. Don't feel guilty.
There are ways you can cut corners, especially when you are
making many different recipes. Use frozen bread dough or frozen
pie crusts when time is limited. There are many prepared
vegetables which may be found in the frozen foods section, e.g.,
chopped onions. If you discover a quicker way to make any of the
recipes in this book, please e-mail me. I am always looking for
ways to save time.
A recipe is a list of ingredients with
instructions. This is a starting point for your own creativity.
To add a liquid to a condensed food such as soup or
juice to bring it to original strength.
To decrease the quantity of a liquid by simmering a
liquid, such as beef stock, in an uncovered pan until the
quantity is noticeably decreased and the flavor concentrated.
The outer skin of watermelon, bacon, cheese and
To cleanse foods with cold running water. Lettuce
should be rinsed.
meat fat side up on a flat or V-shaped rack in a shallow or deep
square or oval roasting pan for cooking in an oven.
A large, deep pan made of stainless or preferably
aluminum covered with a nonstick coating. Both a deep pan and a
shallow pan are acceptable.
To use a rolling pin to flatten dough or pastry.
Both a French tapered and traditional two-handled
rolling pin are the best to have on hand. The tapered rolling
pin is very useful when rolling pie crust or tortillas, as it
seems to encourage a rounding of the dough. Never wash in the
The temperature should be around 68º.
Butter is best at 67º as
it may be easily creamed with sugar or incorporated into egg
whites, e.g., buttercream icing.
A mixture of butter and flour used to thicken soups
and gravies. The butter is melted and then the flour is whisked
into the butter. A liquid is added to form a gravy or soup.
A handy tool for measuring baking pans and checking
measurements of dough or pastry for baking. Can also be used to
cut straight lines by using ruler and a knife.
Made from the yellow-orange stigmas of crocus
flowers. Kashmir saffron from Northern India comes in a small
vial and is usually not crushed. It is deep red with a
distinctive sharp, bitter-floral flavor. Spanish saffron is more
versatile in all recipes and may be found in a powdered form.
Expensive, however a little goes a long way.
Good Grips salad spinner has a removable drainer
and a press top to easily spin salad after it has been rinsed.
Removing water helps to prevent soggy salad.
Two types of salt are recommended. One in a salt
"crock" or glass jar with a cork lid which is easy to
remove. This salt is called Fleur de Sel and is sea salt. The
other salt is finer milled, regular salt found in the grocery
store. It is useful to put this salt in a small spice container
with a sprinkling side and a measuring side lid. This makes it
easy to level salt for most recipes.
fat generally found in a solid form at room temperature.
Saturated fats are primarily found in animal products such as
butter, milk, cream and lard. The percentages of saturated fats
in vegetable oils are as follows: coconut (89%), palm-kernel oil
(83%), cottonseed (26%), avocado (20%), sesame seed (18%),
peanut (17%), walnut (16%), soybean (14%), olive (14%),
grapeseed (13%), corn (13%), sunflower (12%), hazelnut (11%),
safflower (9%), almond (9%) and finally the lowest canola (6%).
Saturated fats have been found to increase blood cholesterol
levels. See the substitutions list for heart-healthy
Cook the food lightly in oil or butter with higher
sides than a frying pan. A 5-quart sauté pan works well,
however a frying pan may also be used when necessary.
To heat just to the boiling point in a pan. Small
bubbles will appear around the edge. This is done to retard milk
To make shallow cuts across the surface of a food
before cooking. This is seen in French bread or may be done to a
flank steak before cooking in order to keep the edges of the
meat from curling up.
To remove the outer peel from vegetables with a
sharp knife. The knife is rubbed across the vegetable to
partially or completely remove the skin.
To cook meat briefly in a Dutch oven or frying pan
to brown and seal in meat juices.
To remove the segments from a citrus with a sharp
To separate the yolk from the white, use an egg
separator. The easy method used by chefs is to hold the egg in
the right hand, rap the egg against the metal or ceramic rim of
a bowl and then use both thumbs to ease open the egg. Transfer
the egg yolk back and forth between the two egg shell halves
until all the egg white has dripped down into the bowl. If you
get some egg yolk in the whites you can soak it up with a piece
To remove the rigid outer covering of foods such as
nuts and eggs.
This is a vegetable oil which has been process to
form a solid form. Crisco®
is a solid vegetable shortening.
To push food across a sharp grating surface.
Cheddar cheese and other soft cheeses are "shredded"
across the large holes of a grater. Parmesan and other hard
cheese is "grated" on a grater.
When purchasing shrimp by the pound you will get an
approximate number according to the size of the shrimp. When you
need an exact amount, request that amount. When purchasing
miniature shrimp you will receive approximately 100; small
shrimp (36-45); medium shrimp (31-35); large shrimp (21-30);
extra-large shrimp (16-20); and jumbo shrimp will have 11-15
shrimp per pound. Look for this information at your seafood
counter when purchasing shrimp.
remove the shells from shellfish or to remove the husks from
ears of corn. To shuck an oyster: rinse oysters, use a rubber
oyster glove and oyster knife. Pry tip of knife between shell
into soft spot on hinge. Twist knife to break the hinge and pry
open shell. Slide knife in and sever connector muscle from top
the shell. Discard top shell. Sever connector
muscle from bottom shell. Use tip of knife to remove bits of
shell or sand from oyster. Rinse off sand. Remember to discard
any oysters which are open before shucking.
To press foods through a strong metal mesh
strainer. This is done to remove seeds or other undesirable
particles from foods.
A sieve or strainer is also useful to sift dry ingredients.
Purchase at least 3 sizes.
To pass dry ingredients through a mesh strainer to
To cook a liquid over low heat without boiling; it
must stay below a temperature of 185
Long wooden "spears" which are thicker
than toothpicks. Metal skewers work better when grilling
outdoors or when ingredients are heavy. Bamboo skewers should be
soaked in water before using on a grill.
is used frequently in cookbooks and is just a thick-based fry
pan. The thick base allows the heat to spread evenly.
To remove fat or foam from the surface of a soup or
sauce with a spoon. This can also be done after a soup has been
chilled. The congealed fat can then be easily lifted off.
To cut food into thick or thin slices, usually
Fresh herbs should be placed in a cup and then
snipped with a kitchen shears into tiny pieces.
Found in many foods but especially in salt. Table
salt makes up the majority of our sodium intake. One teaspoon of
salt contains 2,000 milligrams of sodium. 1,100 to 3,300
milligrams of sodium per day is considered normal consumption
for the average adult.
Soft Ball stage for candy
Fill a cup full of cold water and drop in about 1/2
teaspoon boiling candy. Use your fingers to roll the candy
mixture into a soft ball. The ball will quickly lose shape if
removed from the water. A candy thermometer will read from 234
. Fondant and fudge are examples of this stage.
Soft Crack stage for candy
a glass with cold water and drop in 1/2 teaspoon boiling candy.
The candy will form brittle threads which will soften when they
are removed from the water. A candy thermometer will read
. Butterscotch is a good example of this stage.
To leave butter on the counter until it comes to
room temperature or to mash cold butter with a wooden spoon
until it is soft and workable. The quickest way to soften frozen
and refrigerated butter is in the microwave. Experiment with
your microwave as each one is different. Try 20 to 30 seconds on
full power if frozen. Refrigerated butter will take less time.
Originally soy beans were grown in Asia for
thousands of years. This protein-rich food is commonly eaten as
tofu, miso and soy sauce. While it is bland on its own; it will
absorb flavors of the foods with which it is cooked. Your best
source for soy products is Dixie USA, Inc. in the Source
come from the seeds, bark, fruit, flower or roots of plants and
add dimension to foods. The best way to purchase spices is
through mail-order sources. Penzeys Spices is one of my
favorites. If you are purchasing spices at your local store, you
are most likely spending an exorbitant amount of money on each
glass jar. The most economical way to purchase dried or whole
spices is in bulk. Once you have invested money in a spice jar
rack, there is no need to keep buying more jars. Many stores
have a bulk section, however freshness is never guaranteed.
Spices vary in price and weight. When purchasing a 4-ounce bag
of crushed dried spices like cinnamon, remember this will fill
about three 1/2-cup size spice jars. If you cook less
frequently, the small plastic jars may be more practical. Family
and friends are more than willing to take any extra spices which
don't fit in the spice jars. On the other hand, you might just
reseal the packages and store them in you cupboard.
cup cinnamon, 2 tablespoons ground nutmeg, 2teaspoons ground ginger.
cup granulated sugar, 4 teaspoons ground cinnamon, 1/2 teaspoon
ground cardamom, 1/2 teaspoon ground nutmeg.
cup ground cinnamon, 1 tablespoon ground ginger, 2 teaspoons ground
nutmeg, 1 teaspoon ground allspice, 1 teaspoon ground cloves.
tablespoon garlic salt, 1 tablespoon paprika, 2 teaspoons each:
cayenne, ground coriander, ground cumin, ground ginger. 1/2 teaspoon
ground cardamom, 1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon.
tablespoons ground cumin, 4 teaspoons ground coriander, 4 teaspoons
powdered mustard, 2 tablespoons ground turmeric, 1 teaspoon each:
ground allspice, cayenne, ground cinnamon and ground ginger.
2 tablespoons ground allspice, 2 tablespoons celery salt, 2
tablespoons powdered mustard, 1 tablespoon ground ginger, 1
tablespoon paprika, 3/4 teaspoon cayenne.
tablespoons ground black pepper, 2 tablespoons onion powder, 2
tablespoons paprika, 2 tablespoons salt, 1 tablespoon garlic powder,
1 tablespoon ground thyme.
4 tablespoons chili powder, 2 teaspoons ground cumin, 2 teaspoons
ground oregano, 2 teaspoons garlic salt.
To scoop up a food such as soup or batter with a
spoon and to transfer it to another container or baking dish.
The mix between the convenience of a spoon and the
versatility of a spatula. Essential for folding ingredients into
To apply butter or preserves with a knife.
The best pan to look for is one with a glass base
which does not need to be removed before serving cheesecake. The
high metal sides have a clamp which releases them from the
To cook food in a steamer over boiling water so
that only the steam reaches the food. Steam may also be used in
bread making and when moisture is needed in oven. Simply place a
pan of water on lowest shelf in oven before baking. Some rice
cookers have a steaming option. Vegetables can also be steamed
while rice is cooking, which saves energy.
To let food stand in hot liquid to extract or
enhance flavor, e.g., tea bags in hot water or poached fruit in
cook meats and vegetables slowly in liquid for a long period of
To blend ingredients using a spoon or fork in a
A quick method of cooking in a wok over high heat.
The wok is heated and the vegetables and meats are stirred to
cook quickly. This technique was born out of necessity in
Canton. In the ancient capital of China, fuel for cooking and
meat was in short supply. The Cantonese (Southern Chinese)
people used small amounts of meats, lots of vegetables and a wok
to cook food quickly, saving fuel. Meat is cooked first, then
vegetables are cooked quickly to retain their tender crisp
texture. A sauce is made at the end.
The flavorful liquid produced when meats, herbs and
vegetables are simmered for a long time. Stock can be made by
mixing water with chicken or beef base. Some stock bases are
also made with fish or just vegetables. Ham base is also
available through mail order.
This is a tall narrow pot used to make stock as
well as boiling crab legs, corn on the cob, etc. An 8 to
12-quart pot should be sufficient for all needs.
To pour a liquid through a mesh sieve to remove
A sweetener and preservative, sugar hinders the
growth of bacteria, yeast and molds or encouraging rising in
baked goods. This sweet-tasting carbohydrate, formed naturally
in many plants as an energy reserve is also called sucrose. The
sugar we use today comes from sugar cane, grown first in India
in 325 BC then China, Persia and the Middle East. Juice is
extracted from sugar cane, then mixed with water and heated.
When the impurities are filtered, a clear syrup remains. The
syrup then goes through a process of evaporation to induce
crystallization. Inferior brown sugar is white sugar which has
been refined and coated with molasses. True brown sugar is never
refined to white sugar and retains the natural molasses.
Muscovado sugar from India Tree 1-800-369-4848, has a depth and
complexity not found in supermarket brands. C&H® brown sugar is the closest to this
texture, but without the intensity and rich brown molasses
flavor. When muscovado sugar is used in recipes the salt content
may sometimes be reduced. White sugar is also found in many
forms. Granulated white sugar is the most common.
Confectioners’ sugar is a white powdery sugar used to make
icings and dissolves quickly. Sparkling sugar crystals are
larger than regular granulated sugar and may be used to decorate
baked goods. Look for a rainbow blend or individual
Table serving and etiquette
is right," is the way to remember to serve food to guests
from their left. Beverages are served from their right. Serve
women, older guests and children first. When you are seated at a
table, serve the person to the right of yourself if you are the
host and proceed counterclockwise. Everyone should pass the food
in the same direction. Clear dishes from the right and never
stack or scrape dishes in front of a guest.
Table set-up for a daily meal
The simplest meals will have a dinner plate with a
fork on the left and a knife on the right. The glass should be
in the upper right above the knife. The napkin should be on the
plate or next to the dinner fork. A salad fork may be added to
the left of the fork. A teaspoon can be added to the right of
the knife. The bread plate should be above the forks on the
left. The salad plate can be placed on top of the dinner plate.
Soup bowls may be used in place of salad plates. A coffee cup
should be placed to the right of the knife.
A shallow pan, preferably with a removable base.
The edges should be fluted. The round 9 by 1-inch and 11 by
1-inch are common sizes. Pans are measured straight across the
top of a dish from the inside edge to the other opposite edge.
temperature of your burners is essential to the results you
achieve. Too high and the heat will burn the food, too low and
the food will cook too slowly and affect the taste –
especially in preparing steaks. While rice may be cooked on low
to allow the rice to slowly absorb the water, meats are cooked
at higher temperatures to seal in juices. Use high heat to boil
or reduce liquids. Use medium to medium-high heat for sautéing,
stir-frying and frying most foods. Use low heat for warming
foods, simmering sauces and preparing delicate foods which burn
easily. Learn to adjust the temperatures based on your
experience with your cookware. Some pots and pans will conduct
heat more quickly than others.
I have done about everything wrong to learn the
correct way to handle real chocolate. Fine chocolates are highly
recommended for tempering. I usually don't temper chocolate as
it takes more time than I usually have and I discovered an easy
way to heat the chocolate in a crockery cooker. If you are
feeling ambitious try the method here. Tempering is a term used
for the process of stabilizing chocolate by heating chocolate
and then spreading two thirds of the warm
chocolate on a large marble slab. The chocolate is then worked
back and forth with a metal spatula until it becomes thick and
. Transfer the thickened chocolate back to the
melted chocolate and heat to 89
for semisweet chocolate and 85
for milk or white chocolate. Chocolate for use in
tempering should always be chopped/shaved into small pieces (use
a chef's knife to "shave" chocolate off bar), the
larger pieces take too long and the melted chocolate can start
to freeze up before all the chocolate is melted. To test the
chocolate, spread a small amount on a piece of aluminum foil.
When it cools it should be smooth and shiny. To keep chocolate
smooth, I add a 1/2 teaspoon Crisco. If you overheat or scorch
the chocolate it can also become very grainy. If some of your
chocolate does start to freeze up, the mixture can be strained
and still used. I prefer to melt chocolate in a crockery cooker.
Professional chocolate temperers are very expensive and a double
boiler is too risky with the presence of steam which causes the
chocolate to thicken. When working with chocolate, make sure
there are no strong odors like garlic. Once when I was making
truffles for a party, they smelled like garlic because I was
making lasagna. I had to remake all of them, but actually
created a new recipe so it was worth it. If you have leftover
chocolate in the crockery cooker, add some vanilla syrup or
syrup from candied chestnuts. Place in a small bottle and reheat
later for a delicious chocolate sauce for ice cream or spread
graham crackers with marshmallow creme and the chestnut
To bring a frozen food to room temperature. Meats
should be thawed in the refrigerator.
An instant-read thermometer is great for meats. A
candy thermometer is practical as you can clip it to the side of
the pan and monitor the temperature changes. A new thermometer
on the market is a boon for the busy cook and has the features
of a timer with a long wire which allows meat to be cooked to a
specific temperature in the oven. Call 1-800-866-5478 for a
infrared sensor thermometer which is much more expensive.
When a sugar syrup reaches between 230
F. The syrup will form threads when dropped into
ice water but will not form a ball when rolled between fingers.
To lightly brown a piece of bread in a toaster,
oven or frying pan. Nuts can also be toasted in oven or a frying
when frying foods or to pick up and turn pieces of chicken. Also
useful to serve salads.
These can be purchased in multicolors or with
little decorations, such as an American flag for the Fourth of
July. Handy for appetizers or for special occasions.
To gently mix ingredients using a large spoon and
fork with a lifting motion then allow ingredients to drop back
A chocolate ganache (ga-nosh) is made with
chocolate, warm whipping cream and butter. After refrigerating
or freezing, the chocolates are dipped in more chocolate,
creating a hard shell.
Truffles, Subterranean mushrooms
in Babylonian times, mushrooms, called truffles, are actually
subterranean fungi which grow in the soil by oak trees in France
and in the deserts of Arabia. They can be white or dark brown
and are very expensive due to the high demand. Like most
expensive ingredients, a little often goes a long way. Black
truffles are from the Perigord region in France. They are only
in season from August to December. Dogs are trained to hunt out
truffles then they are carefully removed from the earth without
being touched by even a human hand, this would cause them to
rot. Truffles may be ordered from Dean & Deluca or Urbani
and should be used immediately. Truffle butter will last much
longer and can be frozen. I recommend the truffle butter which
is more practical. White truffle oil will also go a long way and
can be used easily.
The method of securing the wings and legs of a
turkey or chicken using skewers and kitchen twine so that it
keeps shape during cooking. Unflavored dental floss works in a
A food claiming to be unsalted should be sodium
free unless the food naturally contains sodium and no salt has
been added. In order to cut back on sodium intake, use salt
sparingly at the table and avoid over-processed meats and
cheeses. Experiment with recipes using less salt each time. Use
low sodium substitutes for salt. Limit broth, snack foods,
pickled vegetables, sauces and frozen dinners. Use herbs and
spices in place of salt. Use onion and garlic powder in place of
onion and garlic salt.
Cream which is churned until it forms a solid and
to which no salt has been added. Perfect for buttercream icings.
An extract made from vanilla beans soaked in
alcohol. Comes in many forms including vanilla powder, vanilla
paste which contains flecks of vanilla bean and vanilla
marinade. These are not as common as vanilla extract.
Bourbon-Madagascar vanilla extract is superior in quality.
You can also make your own vanilla extract with vanilla beans
fixed blade is more useful than a swivel blade, however the
choice is up to you.
There are several types of vegetarians. Most will
eat vegetables, fruits, grains, beans and tofu. Lacto-ovo
vegetarians will eat dairy products and eggs. Lacto vegetarians
will also eat dairy products. The vegetarian diet should include
all the amino acids for it to be effective. Mixing beans and
rice will give you a complete protein meal.
The internal organs, e.g., heart, lungs, liver,
kidneys, intestines, etc.
Bottled water or purified water is preferred in all
recipes calling for water in the ingredients. This is a personal
preference. There is a difference in taste especially in drinks.
Try freezing one ice tray with pure water, and one with tap
water. There is a "clear" difference. When a recipe
calls for ice water, place water with ice cubes and measure out
the amount of water needed, leaving the ice cubes behind. Warm
water for bread making is perfect around 110
When the liquid separates from a solid food.
Meringues are famous for this problem with droplets of liquid
visible on them.
The Nutritional Facts Food Label can be very useful
if you buy many prepared foods. If you are trying to lose
weight, look for recipes which have very little or no fat, in
the ingredient list. You still need a small amount of fat but a
recipe which contains a large amount will hinder your weight
loss goals. Limit desserts and sweet foods to two times a week
and try to eat dinner as far ahead of bed time as possible.
People who eat breakfast are generally more successful at weight
lose. Eat more slowly so your body has time to signal when you
are full. Exercise, and make good food choices. Never starve
yourself, as this will cause your metabolism to slow down. Set
reasonable weight goals and remember to enjoy life and reward
yourself when you have met your goals.
One of the first cultivated plants grown in the
Fertile Crescent. It took thousands of years to reach southern
Europe. European colonists finally introduced it to the
Americas, South Africa and Australia.
To beat rapidly to add air and increase volume of a
cream or egg white mixture. Use a wire whisk or electric mixer.
There are two types of whipping cream. One is sold
as whipping cream, the other as heavy cream. Heavy cream has a
higher fat content. Heavy cream is fine for whipped cream
topping but should not be used when whipping cream is called
a looped wire kitchen utensil to mix in a swift circular motion.
A coated or plastic whisk is very handy to use in nonstick pans
when making gravies as they help prevent lumps from forming. Buy
several sizes and at least two large ones.
Produced from corn sugar which is fermented and
used to thicken or simulate the texture of sugar and oil in low
calorie products. It also replaces starch in puddings.
With many manufacturers using different strains of
this organism, the choices can be very confusing. Using a
package of yeast in one recipe may be sufficient while in
another more may be needed. If you measure yeast by the teaspoon
or tablespoon, you will have the exact quantity needed. Yeast, a
natural leavening for bread, is found in many forms. Cakes of
yeast, instant yeast, active dry yeast, instant active dry, and
rapid-rise yeast can all be used at different times. You can
substitute the same amount of rapid-rise yeast for regular
active dry yeast and cut the rising time of a dough in half.
This may not always be desired, as some breads benefit from a
slow rising. Sweet breads seem to benefit from a rapid yeast.
Rapid yeast is also faster and has all the qualities of the best
yeast around the world. Rapid rise yeast is an excellent choice
for the cook who wants to get bread on the table fast.
Fleischmann's Rapid Rise yeast seems to be the best and most
popular yeast on the market. Instant yeast, an all-purpose yeast
which has smaller granules, can be added to a mixture without
being "proofed" (dissolved in water to reactivate the
live cells covered by dead cells). Instant yeast is more
aggressive as it is dried at a lower temperature, thus it
produces more live cells ready for action. Fleischmann's Instant
Yeast is an excellent choice. The process of proofing is no
longer necessary, as modern yeast – unless the plant (fungi)
has completely died by being subjected to high temperatures –
works well all the time. Active yeast, which is deactivated when
dry, is the favorite store variety. Purchase dry yeast in a
bottle, three linked individual packets or use Bob's Red Mill
refrigerated variety, which is an excellent yeast as long as the
expiration date has not passed. Find the yeast which works best
for you. If you are using a yeast which does not work at all,
purchase a fresh container immediately to prevent the wasting of
ingredients. Most dry yeast will last longer if kept in the
refrigerator in a closed container. To test yeast, mix 1
teaspoon granulated sugar, 1/4 cup warm water (110
), 1 package yeast (2 1/4 teaspoons) in a 1/2 cup
measuring cup. The mixture should swell to fill the measuring
cup. For more information please call Fleischmann's Yeast Baking
Experts at 1-800-777-4959. I mostly use SAF Instant Yeast from
www.kingarthurflour.com for all places I mention active dry
yeast. I find it doesn't have a "yeasty" flavor and
works well every single time. I keep it in the refrigerator in a
glass bottle with a tight fitting lid.
strips of the peel of citrus fruit without the bitter white
pith. To remove the zest, scrape a zester (a tool with small
holes in one end) against the skin of the citrus fruit. A fine
grater will also work but is more time consuming. Organic citrus
fruit is recommended or wash lemons with a vegetable wash to
remove pesticide residues. Some zesters have a special channel
cutter which can be used to remove strips of lemon peel from end
to end evenly spaced around lemon. Thinly slice the lemon to
make lemon wheels. To obtain a piece of lemon peel, simply cut a
section about an inch wide and 2 inches long from the side of
the lemon being careful not to cut too deeply, to avoid bitter
white pith. A vegetable peeler or small sharp knife works well
to cut off pieces of lemon peel.