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Substitutions & Equivalents

 

Active dry yeast

(1 package)  

 

=   2 1/4 teaspoons active dry yeast
or
1 cake compressed yeast  

All-purpose flour

(1 cup)  

 

=  

 

1 cup + 2 tablespoons cake flour  

Apple

(1 Braeburn apple)  

 

=  

 

1 cup chopped fresh or canned pie apples (for baking)
or
1 apple, your choice (not for baking)  

Apple pie spice

(1 teaspoon)  

 

=   1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon mixed with 1/4 teaspoon ground nutmeg and 1/4 teaspoon ground allspice. Add a pinch ground cloves. 

Arrowroot

(1 tablespoon)  

 

=   1 1/2 tablespoons all-purpose flour

or

2 1/4 teaspoons cornstarch  

Baking powder

(1 teaspoon)  

 

=   1/4 teaspoon baking soda + 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar. Add an optional 1/4 teaspoon cornstarch if you are making the mixture ahead of time.

Balsamic Vinegar

(1 tablespoon)  

 

=   1 tablespoon mild red wine vinegar  
Banana (1)  

 

=   1/3 cup mashed banana  

 

Beef stock

(1 cup)  

 

=   1 teaspoon beef base
+ 1 cup boiling water  

 

Bouquet Garni (1)  

 

=   1 dried bay leaf, 1 sprig fresh thyme,
1 sprig fresh rosemary, 8 sprigs parsley  

 

Bread crumbs

(1 cup)  

 

=   3/4 cup cracker crumbs

Cake flour

(1 cup)  

 

=   1 cup minus 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour

or

7/8 cup all-purpose flour
+ 1/8 cup cornstarch

 

Cheese

(1 ounce)  

 

=     1 ounce low-fat cheese  

Chicken stock

(1 cup)  

 

=   1 teaspoon chicken base
+ 1 cup boiling water

Cocoa, unsweetened

(1 cup)  

 

=   1 cup fat-free unsweetened cocoa  

Coffee cream

(1 cup)  

 

=   3 tablespoons unsalted butter + 7/8 cup whole milk  

Compressed yeast

(One 2-ounce cake)  

 

=   3 (1/4-ounce) packets dry yeast  

Confectioners' sugar

(1 cup)  

 

=   3 (1/4-ounce) packets dry yeast  

Confectioners' sugar

(1 cup)  

 

=   1 cup granulated sugar + 1 teaspoon cornstarch (not for use in icing)  

Corn syrup

(1 cup)  

 

=   2/3 cup sugar + 1/3 cup water

Cornstarch

(1 tablespoon for thickening purposes)  

 

=   2 tablespoons all-purpose flour

or

1 1/2 to 2 teaspoons arrowroot powder

 

Cream cheese

1 (8-ounce) container  

 

=     1 (8-ounce) container Neufchâtel cheese which is lower in fat.  

Dark brown sugar

(1 cup)  

 

=   1 cup granulated sugar + 2 tablespoons mild molasses  

Dark corn syrup

(1 cup)  

 

=   1 cup granulated sugar + 2 tablespoons mild molasses  

or

1 cup Golden Syrup

 

Egg whites

(1 cup)  

 

=   8 to 10 egg whites  

Egg yolks

(1 cup)  

 

=   12 to 14 egg yolks  

Flour

(2 tablespoons)  

 

=   1 tablespoon cornstarch

Fresh bread crumbs

(1 cup)  

 

=   4 slices bread, crumbled  

Fresh herbs

(1 tablespoon)  

 

=   1 teaspoon dried herbs  

Fruit liqueur

(1 tablespoon)  

 

=   1 tablespoon fruit juice  

Garlic

(1 medium clove)  

 

=   1/8 teaspoon garlic powder
or
1/2 teaspoon bottled chopped garlic

Graham crumbs

(1 cup)  

 

=   14 square graham crackers  

Granulated sugar

(1 cup)  

 

=   2/3 cup clover honey

Ground beef

(1 pound)  

 

=   1 pound ground turkey (white meat for even lower fat content)

Half-and-half

10.5 to 18% butterfat
(1 cup)  

 

=     1 cup fat-free evaporated milk
or
1 1/2 tablespoons unsalted butter plus enough whole milk to equal 1 cup
or
1/2 cup light cream plus 1/2 cup whole milk  

 

Heavy Whipping Cream

36-40 % butterfat
(1 cup)  

 

=   3/4 cup whole milk + 5 tablespoons melted unsalted butter (not for whipping cream)
or
Makes 2 cups whipped cream  

Honey

(1 cup)  

 

=   1 1/4 cups granulated sugar + 1/4 cup water or appropriate liquid then reduce other liquid by 1/4 cup in recipe.  
Juice of 1 lemon   =   1/4 cup fresh lemon juice

 

Juice of 1 orange   =   1/3 cup orange juice

 

Large egg white (1)   =   2 tablespoons thawed frozen egg white
or
1 tablespoon powdered egg white +
2 tablespoons water  

 

Large egg yolk (1)   =   3 1/2 teaspoons thawed frozen yolk
or
2 tablespoons powdered yolk +
2 teaspoons water

 

Large egg yolks (2)  

 

=   1 whole large egg

Lemon juice

(1 teaspoon)  

 

=   1/2 teaspoon white vinegar (not recommended in cakes or desserts where lemon is the desired flavoring. Best in salad dressings as a substitute.)

Lemon zest

(1 teaspoon)  

 

=   1 teaspoon lime zest  

Light cream

18 to 30% butterfat
(1 cup)  

 

=   1 1/2 tablespoons unsalted butter + whole milk to make 1 cup  

Low-fat buttermilk

(1 cup)  

 

=   1 tablespoon fresh lemon juice plus enough 1% milk to make 1 cup. Let stand for about 5 minutes before using.
or
1 cup water + 3 tablespoons Darigold
® powdered cultured buttermilk  

 

Marshmallow

(1 large)  

 

=   10 mini-marshmallows  

Mayonnaise

(1 cup)  

 

=   1 cup fat-free or low-fat mayonnaise  

Melted salted butter

(1 cup)  

 

=   1 cup canola oil + 1/2 teaspoon salt  

Melted unsalted butter

(1 cup)  

 

=   1 cup canola oil—use in batters  

Mild molasses

(1 cup)  

 

=   3/4 cup dark brown sugar

Mushrooms

(1 pound)  

 

=   2 cups (12-ounce) can

Mustard, prepared

(1 tablespoon)  

 

=   1 teaspoon mustard powder +
2 tablespoons wine vinegar  
Oil for frying   =   Spay pan with olive oil or canola oil which has been placed in a small spray bottle designed for spritzing oil. This can also be used on salads.

 Using a nonstick pan may eliminate the need for oil. Some oils such as olive oil contribute greatly to the taste of a sauce or dish and are heart-healthy.  

 

Onion, medium

(1/3 cup chopped)  

 

=  

1 tablespoon dehydrated minced onion

or
1 teaspoon onion powder

 

Poultry seasoning

(1 teaspoon)  

 

=   1/2 teaspoon rubbed sage, 1/4 teaspoon dried thyme and 1/4 teaspoon dried marjoram. Crush in a mortar with pestle if you can't find rubbed sage.

Prepared mustard

(1 tablespoon)  

 

=   1 teaspoon mustard powder mixed with 1 tablespoon water

Pumpkin pie spice

(1 teaspoon)  

 

=   1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon, 1/4 teaspoon powdered ginger, 1/4 teaspoon ground allspice, and 1/8 teaspoon ground nutmeg  

Red wine

(1 cup)  

 

=   1/2 cup cranberry juice + 1 tablespoon fresh lemon juice plus enough water to make 1 cup

Regular freshly ground black peppercorns

(1 teaspoon)  

 

=   1/2 cup cranberry juice + 1 tablespoon fresh lemon juice plus enough water to make 1 cup

Regular freshly ground black peppercorns

(1 teaspoon)  

 

=   1/2 teaspoon freshly ground Tellicherry peppercorns. These are very spicy in
comparison to regular store bought pepper, especially if it is already ground.

Spanish saffron powder

(a pinch)  

 

=   A pinch turmeric or a pinch crushed
Kashmir "Mogra Cream" Indian
Saffron - world's finest  

Salted butter

1/2 cup (1 stick)  

 

=   1/2 cup unsalted butter, softened and mixed with 1/2 teaspoon salt  

Saltine cracker crumbs

(1 cup)  

 

=   28 saltine crackers  

Self-rising flour

(1 cup)  

 

=   1 cup all-purpose flour
+ 1/2 teaspoon salt and
1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder  

Semisweet baking chocolate

(1 ounce/1 square)  

 

=   3 tablespoons unsweetened cocoa
+ 1 tablespoon unsalted butter and
1 tablespoon sugar.
or
3 tablespoons carob powder + 2 tablespoons water

 

Semisweet chocolate chips

(6 ounces)  

 

=   1/2 cup + 1 tablespoon unsweetened cocoa mixed with 1/4 cup + 3 tablespoons granulated sugar.
Mix with 3 tablespoons softened unsalted butter.  

Shortening/Crisco®

(1 cup)  

 

=     7 ounces canola oil  

Shredded cheese

(1 pound)  

 

=   4 cups shredded cheese  

Sour cream

(1 cup)  

 

=   1 cup plain fat-free yogurt
or
3/4 cup buttermilk + 1/3 cup unsalted butter  

Tomato juice

(1 cup)  

 

=   1/2 cup tomato sauce + 1/2 cup water  

Tomato sauce

(2 cups)  

 

=   3/4 cup tomato paste plus 1 1/4 cups water

Unsweetened baking chocolate

(1 ounce/1 square)  

 

=   3 tablespoons unsweetened cocoa
+ 1 tablespoon unsalted butter
or
3 tablespoons carob powder + 2 tablespoons water

Vanilla wafer crumbs

(1 cup)  

 

=   22 crumbled vanilla wafers  

Vegetable stock

(1 cup)  

 

=   1 tablespoon vegetable base + 1 cup boiling water  

Whipping cream

(most common form)
30 to 36% butterfat
(1 cup)  

 

=   7/8 cup whole milk + 3 tablespoons melted unsalted butter (only as an ingredient, not for whipping.

White wine

(1 cup)  

 

=   1/2 cup grape juice + 1 tablespoon white wine vinegar
Whole large egg (1)  

 

=   2 large egg yolks + 1 tablespoon cold water
or
1/4 cup refrigerated egg substitute
or
2 1/2 tablespoons powdered whole egg +
2 1/2 tablespoons cold water
or
2 egg whites

 

Whole milk

from whole dry milk
(1 cup)  

 

=   1/3 cup whole dry milk + 3/4 cup water

Whole milk

from fat-free dry milk
(1 cup)  

 

=   1 cup water + 1/3 cup fat-free milk powder + 2 1/2 teaspoons melted unsalted butter
or
1/2 cup evaporated milk + 1/2 cup cold water
or
1 cup cold water + 1/3 cup regular milk powder  

 

Whole milk

(1 cup)  

 

=   1 cup fat-free milk plus 2 tablespoons unsalted   butter  
 

 

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